Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. Nearly 85 to 90 % of all the patients with the disease suffer from from type 2 diabetes. It is also referred as late onset diabetes and characterized by insufficient production of insulin by pancreatic ß-cells or insulin resistance (reduced target-tissue sensitivity to the effects of insulin).
For long this form of diabetes has been associated with older age, physical inactivity, history of gestational diabetes and ethnicity. However, the concerns over type 2 diabetes has assumed an alarming proportion with more and more children and adults being diagnosed with the disease. Most important fact is nearly 80% of diabetes are obese.
With type 2 diabetes along with type 1 being responsible for increasing mortality, apprehensions over the hidden dangers of these two types of diabetes are on high. To learn about hidden dangers of Type 1 click here.
Let’s be aware of the hidden dangers of type 2 diabetes
1. Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome
Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome(HHNS) is a serious ailment witnessed in people with type 2 or type 1 diabetes. However, it is more common with type 2 diabetics. Usually HHNS occurs due to an infection or illness. It causes the blood sugar levels to rise and the excess sugar is excreted by body through urine. Initially the patient has to go bathroom several times. However, in the later stages the urine becomes dark. As HHNS aggravates, the patient suffers from seizures, coma and finally death.
2. Diabetic ketoacidosis
Unlike type 1, those with type 2 diabetes are more likely to suffer from ketoacidosis. This is a perilous condition with extreme levels of acids or ketones building in the blood. This leads to a situation where the body lacks insulin as ketones appear in urine. Eventually, the body gets poisoned.
3. Diabetic myonecrosis
Diabetic myonecrosis is a complication associated with most type 2 diabetics. Essentially infarcted or damaged muscle tissue are responsible for diabetic myonecross, which usually effects the thigh. Major symptoms of myonecrosis is onset of acute pain in muscles(especially thigh). Further, the patient also suffers from extreme tenderness and swelling of muscles. This kind of myonecrosis is often associated with presence of serious vascular diseases.
4. Cushing’s syndrome
People with type 2 diabetes and obesity having poor blood glucose levels and high blood pressure are highly vulnerable to this disorder. Although there are different symptoms of cushing’ syndrome, most commonly found symptoms include obesity of the upper part of the body, increased fat around the neck, and relatively slender legs and arms. The disorder is also affects the skin making it thin and fragile that can get bruises easily and heal quickly. Further, there may be purple or pink marks on the buttocks, abdomen, thighs, breast and arms. Further, the bones also become weaker. Even daily activities such as lifting, bending or getting up from chair leads to backaches. In some serious cases, the victim might also suffer fractures in the rib or spinal column.
Women suffering with Cushing’s syndrome may experience excessive growth of hair on chest, face, abdomen and thighs. Their menstural periods might become irregular or even stop. The men experience decreased fertility with diminished or absolutely no desire for sex and, in some cases erectile dysfunction may also occur.
5. Ophthalmic complications
There are a number of Ophthalmic complications that include cataract, cranial nerve palsies and glaucoma. However, the most frequent and potentially blinding complication is diabetic retinopathy. Patients with type 2 are more likely to suffer from retinopathy than type 1. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in adults. Diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic begins with changes in the small vessels in the back of the eye and may result in irreversible loss of vision, if not treated on time. Initially diabetic retinopathy leads to changes in vision. The fragile, abnormal blood vessels may develop and leak blood into the center of the eye which results in blurring vision. However, with time it gets worse and leads to complete blindness. Usually it affects both the eyes.
6. Diabetic neuropathy
The type 2 dibetics are most likely to suffer from femoral neuropathy. It is associated with pain in front of one thigh, which is followed by weakness in muscles and the affected muscles are wasted. Diabetics with femoral neuropathy complain of difficulty with stairs and frequent failing secondary to “knee buckling”. There may be acute severe pain in the groin, thigh, and lower abdomen.
Thoracic or lumbar radiculopathy is also common with type 2 diabetics. It is similar to femoral neuropathy, but it is affects only the torso.
It affects the band of abdominal wall or chest on both sides. However, people with this type of neuropathy get better with time.
7. Diabetic nephropathy
Diabetic nephropathy is the kidney disease found in both type 1 and type 2 diabetics. It is one of the leading causes of kidney failure in Europe and USA. Due to nephropathy large blood proteins such as albumin are lost in urine. This gradually leads to development of proteinuria, which reduces the kidneys ability to eliminate poisons from the blood. After 5 to 10 years the kidney is unable to remove the toxins from the blood completely. This is known as end-stage renal disease and can be fatal unless treated in time. However, the risk of developing diabetic nephropathy in patients of type 2 is nearly 10% and 30% for type 1.
Nearly 55% of the type 2 diabetic are obese. Researches show that type 2 diabetes patients are at high risk of developing diabetes resulting from changes in metabolism and other deranged cell behavior. Obesity along with type 2 diabetes are responsible for elevated levels of lipid molecules such as cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Further, in certain cases the patient suffers the risk of fatty liver disease.
Mothers suffering from gestational diabetes mellitus suffer a greater chance of developing diabetes type 2. Such mothers suffer risk of congenital abnormalities or miscarriage. The babies are expected to have a high weight at birth. Moreover, babies with diabetic mothers are likely to have heart defects, five times more than other babies. This occurs largely due to abnormal levels of blood glucose.
10. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Women with type 2 are likely to suffer from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, or PCOS. It is a metabolic disorder that affects the female reproductive system. Those affected by PCOS may experience obesity, infertility, acne, hair growth on the face, chest, and back, irregular ovulation, or even lack of ovulation. Women with PCOS may have difficulty in becoming pregnant.
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