How type1 and type2 diabetes differs in diagnosis?

type-1-diabetesThis is a query most of you have. You wonder why some one is diagnosed to have type1 diabetes when in the texts you will find that this is a genetic disease (from birth). Also in other cases, there is a very thin line of difference in symptoms for type1 and type2 diabetes mellitus. In this article we have attempted to cover a few differences that we found would be comprehensive and important for you.

Firstly as a start up we would like to begin with defining both forms of diseases. Diabetes Mellitus deals with an increased level of sugar in the body which is about 190-200mg/dL. Now this problem can arise from two sources:

  1. Inability of the receptors of the cell to bind insulin or not enough insulin is produced - Diabetes type1
  2. Lack of production of insulin - Diabetes type2

type1Still there are other type of diabetes with which people often get confused is that of the diabetes insipidus. It is completely unrelated to the glucose level of our body. It does not deal with the glucose metabolism by any way. this condition arises due to excessive production of hormones such as vasopressin which causes excessive production of urine.

Now there are several techniques that has come into limelight which can differentiate between type1 and type2 diabetes. Let us discuss.

Natural or human produced insulin includes a C- peptide chain. This C- peptide chain is nicked off from the main insulin protein chain, in a modification of cell. 245_curetype1diabetesimage001Till date artificially produced insulin C-peptides are not included. Therefore, in case of type1 diabetes, where the production of insulin does not happen at all, a C- peptide detection test might help a lot. This is the best test available till date to differentiate the two types.

Tests such as anti-islet antibody, glutamic acid decarboxylase or insulinoma associated peptide2 also identifies the type1 diabetes. In anti islet antibody test, an antibody is prepared against the insulin produced. Generally the antibody designed is radioactively tagged. Therefore if this antibody binds with the insulin produced, it can be identified concluding that it is type2 diabetes.

diabetes_clip_image001_0003Also another effective way to diagnose type1 diabetes is insulin resistance. In this type of test the insulin resistant which incorporates a glucose tolerance test. In case of type2 diabetes, there is some reistance shown by the test, as insulin is released may be in smaller amount. But type1 diabetes will have no effect.

The most recent type of test is by GAD 65 which can differentiate between type1 and type2 diabetes. In type1 diabetes there is the presence of GAD65 antibody in the body, and when we are introducing GAD65 we can easily detect the disease.

The above mentioned tests are quite effective in determining the two types of diabetes mellitus, and we hope that you can choose to undergo any one of them which you find convenient.

Filed under Diabetes, Diabetes awareenss, IDDM, Insulin, Kidney, NIDDM | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , | Comment Below


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